Kartik Purnima est un festival culturel hindou, sikh et jaïn, célébré le jour de Purnima (pleine lune) ou le quinzième jour lunaire de Kartik (novembre-December). Il est également connu sous le nom de Tripuri Purnima et Tripurari Purnima. On l’appelle parfois Deva-Diwali ou Deva-Deepawali, la fête des lumières des dieux.
Tripuri Purnima ou Tripurari Purnima tire son nom de Tripurari – l’ennemi du démon Tripurasura. Dans certaines legends de Kartik Purnima, le terme est utilisé pour désigner les trois fils démons de Tārakāsura. Tripurari est une épithète du dieu Shiva. Shiva sous sa forme de Tripurantaka (« Tueur de Tripurasura ») a tué Tripurasura ce jour-là. Le meurtre du ou des démons et la destruction de ses villes avec une seule flèche – par Shiva ont ravi les dieux et ils ont déclaré le jour comme un festival d’illuminations. Ce jour est également appelé « Dev-Diwali » – le Diwali des dieux. Diwali est la fête hindoue des lumières.
Kartik Purnima is also the birthday of Matsya, the incarnation of the fish (avatar) of the god Vishnu. It is also the birthday of Vrinda, the personification of the Tulsi plant and of Kartikeya, the god of war and son of Shiva. This day is also considered special for the goddess Radha, the lover and eternal wife of the god Krishna. It is believed that Krishna and Radha danced the rasa and that Krishna worshiped Radha on this day. This day is also dedicated to pitrs, deceased ancestors.
Underhill believes that the origins of this festival may lie in ancient times, when a sacrifice called Shakamedhah was performed to achieve victory over enemies.
The festival becomes even more important when daylight falls in the Nakshatra (lunar mansion) Krittika and is then called Maha Kartik. The nakshatra is Bharani, the results are said to be special. If it is Rohini nakshatra, then the fruitful results are even more. Any act of philanthropy on this day is believed to bring benefits and blessings equal to the performance of ten yajnas (sacrifices).
Kartik Purnima is closely associated with Prabodhini Ekadashi which marks the end of Chaturmas, a four month period during which Vishnu is supposed to sleep. Prabodhini Ekadashi means awakening of the god. Chaturmas' penance ends on this day. Many fairs that start in Prabodhini Ekadashi end in Kartik Purnima, with Kartik Purnima usually being the most important day of the fair. The fairs that end on this day include the Prabodhini Ekadashi celebrations in Pandharpur and the Pushkar fair. Kartik Purnima is also the last day to perform the Tulsi Vivah ceremony which can be performed from Prabodhini Ekadashi.
Furthermore, it is believed that Vishnu on this day returned to his abode after completing his stay in Bali. Hence, the day is known as Deva-Diwali.
In Pushkar, Rajasthan, the Pushkar or Pushkar mela fair starts on Prabodhini Ekadashi and continues to Kartik Purnima, the latter being the most important. This fair is organized in honor of the god Brahma, whose temple stands in Pushkar. A ritual bath on Kartik Purnima in Pushkar Lake is considered to lead to salvation. It is believed that circling the three Pushkars on Kartik Purnima is highly commendable. The Sadhus gather here and stay from Ekadashi on a full moon day in caves.
A ritual bath in a tirtha (a sacred body of water like a lake or a river) in a pilgrimage center is prescribed in Kartik Purnima. This sacred bath is known as "Kartik snana". A holy bath in Pushkar or in the Ganges, especially in Varanasi, is considered the most auspicious. Kartik Purnima is the most popular day for swimming in the Ganges in Varanasi. Devotees also take a bath in the evening at moonrise and offer worship through six prayers such as Shiva Sambuti, Satait and so on.
Annakuta, a food offering to deities, is kept in temples. God Vishnu is also worshiped on this day. Any form of violence (hinsa or himsa) is prohibited on this day. This includes shaving, haircutting, cutting trees, picking fruits and flowers, cutting crops, and even sexual union. Charity in particular the donation of cows, feeding the Brahmins, fasting are religious activities prescribed for Kartik Purnima. Giving gold is supposed to satisfy all people's desires.
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Aujourd’hui, les Jains, Hindouistes et Sikhs célèbrent Kartik Purnima, aussi connu comme Deva-Diwali, la fête des lumières des dieux. Shiva sous sa forme de Tripurantaka a tué Tripurasura ce jour-là. Le meurtre du ou des démons et la destruction de ses villes avec une seule flèche ont ravi les dieux et ils ont déclaré le jour comme un festival d’illuminations. #mythologie #mythe #legende #calendrier #kartikpurnima #purnima #shiva #tripurasura #devadiwali