Méliador analysis

Jean Froissart or Jehan Froissart, born around 1337 in Valenciennes and died around 1410 in Chimay, is one of the most important chroniclers of the medieval period. Besides a few collections of poems, Froissart is also the author of Méliador, a long novel in octosyllables which stages the exploits of the Arthurian heroes.


Analysis of the Méliador by Auguste Longnon

The subject of the poem is in itself quite simple. In order to escape the too pressing pursuits of an overbearing knight, the heir presumptive to the throne ofScotland has vowed to marry the warrior who, after five years of trials, will be proclaimed the most valiant. But, because of the large number of knights who take part in the quest for the beautiful Hermondine, the action is singularly dense. An even more serious reproach must be addressed to Froissart: the interest of the reader is concentrated at certain times on characters who, in a better composed work, would not present themselves with the same relief. Agamanor and Phénonée on the one hand, Sagremor and Sébille on the other, too often make us forget the real heroes of the novel. Under these conditions, a somewhat detailed analysis of the poem seemed absolutely necessary to us, in order to allow the reader to get an exact account of the progress of the story and to refer more easily to the episodes which would have caught his attention.

Hermond, King of Scots, who had married Lot's sister, Lord of Montgriès, in Northumberland, remains a widower after seven years of marriage, with an only daughter, Hermondine. Forced to support a long war against the King of Sweden in which his brother-in-law accompanied him, he entrusted the young princess to the care of Florée, daughter of Lot, and the two cousins remained together at the castle of Montgriès. Not far away was the Chateau de Camois, owned by a knight named Camel. The chances of a deer hunt one day lead Camel under the walls of Montgriès, in a courtyard where he sounds the hallali. He accepts Florée's hospitality; but, in spite of the latter's entreaties and for a reason which he could not admit, he refused to spend the night at Montgriès: he was, in fact, suffering from somnambulism, and, despite all his bravery, he had it is not customary to sleep without being watched (v. 364).

Camel therefore returns at night to Camois; but, driven by love, he returned the following month to Montgriès. This time, Florée penetrates Camel's feelings towards Hermondine and at the start only shows her a rather cold politeness. She announces her discovery to the young princess, and, to protect her from the search for a knight subject to fits of sleepwalking, she decides that in the future Hermondine will no longer appear before him. On a third visit from Camel, Florée explains the absence of the princess by an indisposition. Another time, since he was refused entry to the castle on the pretext of Florée's state of health, he leaves Hermondine with a letter in which he declares his love. The situation then appeared to Florée full of perils, but the end of the war came to help her out, because King Hermond called his daughter back to him (v. 1019).

After five and a half years of absence and to the great joy of each of them, Lot returned to Montgriès and Hermondine to the royal castle of Signandon where his father expressed the desire to marry her. However, Camel, impatient for an answer, sets out on the hunt and pursues, in the direction of Montgriès, a deer which comes to die at the door of this square. At the sound of the hallali, Lot leaves the castle, welcomes Camel, whom he has known for a long time, and invites him to supper; but the Lord of Camois, informed of Hermondine's departure, left Montgriès less joyful than he had entered. Furious at his disappointment, he instructs his cousin to express his displeasure to Florée and to warn her that he will take revenge on Lot if she does not bring Hermondine back to her. Florée apologizes as best she can, but she fails to appease Camel's anger, who decides to act (c. 1205).

Under the pretext of a dispute between his people and those of Lot, Camel is quick to declare war on him. He seizes the person of Lot and takes him prisoner to Camois; he then sends message after message to Florée, threatening to kill her father in prison, if she does not agree to work for him. Florée then comes to a meeting that Camel has assigned to her and this knight informs her of the price he places on Lot's freedom: she will have to go to Hermondine and prepare her to accept the Lord of Camois as her husband. . Florée decides to make the trip to Scotland, after having obtained "insurance" for the land of Montgriès. After she leaves, Camel loosens a bit of his harshness towards Lot; he promises to give him back his freedom and even to amend the damage he has caused him, if Florée succeeds in the mission which she has undertaken (c. 1483).

Arrived in Signandon, after a journey of five long days, Florée informs Hermondine of Lot's misfortune as well as of Camel's claims, and she asks him for his feelings. The princess asks for fifteen days of reflection, fifteen days during which the King of Scotland receives five marriage proposals for her: three from kings, two from dukes. Pressed by her father, she is careful not to tell him which worries her no less than Florée and apologizes for her youth: she is not yet fourteen years old. Finally, on the advice of her cousin, she declares to King Hermond that she has made a vow to marry the knight who, in the court of King Artus, will be, after five years of trials and the confession of all, recognized for the most valiant. Florée believes that this arrangement, thanks to a letter that Hermondine will write to Camel, is likely to give satisfaction to him, without however binding the future in an irrevocable way. After having taken the advice of his advisers, King Hermond condescends to his daughter's wish: he sends six knights to the court of King Artus, to Carlion, to make known the conditions of the quest, that is to say contest, and, at Florée's dictation, Hermondine wrote Camel a letter intended to convince him that everything had been combined to promote his love (c. 2198).

Florée, then taking leave of the King of Scotland and Hermondine, returned to Montgriès. The very day after her return, she goes to Camois and gives Camel the letter from the princess. The announcement of the quest, which she represents to him as an artifice imagined in his favor, fills him with joy. He therefore releases his prisoner, accompanies him for more than two leagues and returns to his castle, convinced that he will one day be the husband of Hermondine and King of Scotland (c. 2446).

When summer comes, King Artus thinks of giving a party which is fixed for Pentecost. For this purpose, he sends messengers to Tarbonne, to the Duke of Cornwall, Patris, whose son Méliador, about eighteen years old, gives the greatest hopes. If the duke agrees, Méliador will be knighted at the next feast. The duke having answered in the affirmative, Méliador went to Carlion: he was one of the two hundred new knights created by King Artus and won the prize at the jousts that took place on this occasion. As the festivities ended with a farewell dinner, the six knights sent by the King of Scotland arrived, accompanied by a herald on whose shield is represented a lady dressed in blue and wearing a golden crown on her head, the image of the beautiful Hermondine. The herald proclaims the quest and makes known its conditions: it will have as judges twelve warriors appointed, half by King Hermond, half by King Artus; any knight who takes part in it must take only one squire with him and he is forbidden to make his name known. This announcement is enthusiastically received by all the gentlemen bretons, and the six knights Scottish, showered with presents by the King and Queen of Brittany, leave Carlion five days after the end of the feasts to return to Signandon to their sovereign who hears them with pleasure praising Artus (c. 3219).

Méliador, who remained at the court of the King of Brittany, decides that he will participate in the quest. To differentiate himself from other suitors, he will wear blue ornaments in honor of Hermondine as a distinctive sign and will adorn his shield with a golden sun. He opened up about his design to Lansonnet, whom he had chosen as squire, and instructed him to have his equipment prepared, to Carlion, while he returned to spend a few days in Tarbonne. When everything is ready, he leaves this city, without taking leave of his family, and goes on adventures. He is measured first of all with Fernagus, whom he unseats and who, falling, breaks his arm. He then learned, in a manor where he received hospitality, that a tournament would soon take place in front of the Château de la Garde and he set off again (c. 3503).

Méliador meets Gobart des Marais, jousts with this knight he wounds in the right arm and orders him to go to Carlion to report the fight to King Artus. Further on, he finds a small company of three damsels and three squires, in search of a champion willing to defend the lady of Carmelin against the enterprises of a knight named Agamar. He therefore heads towards Carmelin, while Camel de Camois, to whom an order from Hermondine forbidden to leave the country where he lives, guard the country against all knights errant, measure himself against the warriors whom Florée sends him and send those among them who surrender to him to hold prison in Montgriès (v. 3815).

Méliador arrives in Carmelin where he is received with great joy. He comes out almost immediately to fight Agamar, defeats him and receives him mercifully. After having sworn now to live in peace with those of Carmelin and having undertaken to tell his adventure to the King of Brittany, the vanquished knight regains freedom. The next day, Méliador meets on the road Aramé, uncle (or cousin) of Agamar, who rode towards Carmelin in the hope of avenging the defeat of his relative and that because of the similarity of the adornments he takes for his adversary of the day before. The uncle is defeated as the nephew had been, and the knight in the Golden Sun orders him to lay down his arms in Carmelin before leaving for Carlion where he will have to tell King Artus the story of this new fight. Méliador was not alone then to travel through Great Britain seeking adventures, other knights set out in the first year of the quest, seeking battles and glory. More than twenty-four knights, or even more than two hundred and forty, are eager to measure themselves with him, each of them wanting to surpass the others in prowess and fame (v. 4466).

Among the valiant men animated by the hope of conquering Hermondine, Agamanor, originally from Normandy, was one of the most distinguished. The color of his adornments made him call the Red Knight and his squire answered to the name of Bertoulet. The advantage remains in an encounter with the valiant Agaiant, and he sends his opponent to testify to this feat of arms to Carlion. The same day, he defeats another knight called Gondré and comes to sleep at Destour-Manoir, where he hears about a tournament to be held at the Guard, as well as the exploits of the knight in the Golden Sun . The next day he set off again, the mind quite occupied with the beautiful Princess of Scotland (c. 4731).

It is also the love of Hermondine which had led Gratien to leave Italy, his homeland, to travel the world, in the company of his valet Manessier. One day riding in a forest, his attention is awakened by the plaintive cries of a damsel named Florée, whom the traitor knight Bégot, had just kidnapped from his father's house. He stands up for the young girl and forces the traitor to ask for mercy. This Bégot having previously measured himself with Méliador, had failed in his promise to go to Carlion to report the fight in which he had had the underside. Gratien brings Bégot and Florée back to the castle of Montgoffin, with the parents of the damsel, very happy to see again in health a child whom they believed lost forever, and it is decided that the disloyal knight will be led by six or seven of the vassals. de Montgoffin at the court of King Artus who will rule on his case (c. 5192).

Gratien, leaving the castle and receiving from the young girl a ringlet, declares himself forever his knight and tells him his intention to participate in the tournament of the Guard. The very next day, he finds another opportunity to make his mark by attacking and killing a bear that threatened the life of another damsel, the sister of a young quest knight, Clarin, seriously injured in an encounter with Camel. The young girl had almost been the victim of her brotherly tenderness: it was indeed while going to draw water from a fountain, through which Clarin flattered herself with the hope of recovering her health, that she had encountered the terrible animal. She thanks her savior [who brings her back safe and sound to the paternal castle] (v. 5500).

Another knight of great renown, Dagoriset, lodges one evening with an old man, Banidan, whose son, of the same name, was also engaged in the quest. He complains that he has not found any adventure worthy of him for a long time, but Banidan had another knight as his guest the day before, also eager for encounters, and provided Dagoriset with some indications which will enable him to do so. to join: it is Hermonicet, of Carthage. The next day, the two joust together, both displaying great courage, without it being possible to decide which is the better knight. Finally tired of fighting without result, they leave each other by making an appointment at the Tournament of the Guard (c. 5807).

Gratien enters Northumberland, and chance directs his steps towards the woods, where, by order of Hermondine, stands Camel de Camois, who has already killed in single combat five or six knights and has sent several others to hold prison in Montgriès. He knocks at the door of this castle, is received there by Florée, and as he testifies the desire to measure himself with one of the suitors at Hermondine's hand, Lot's daughter speaks to him about Camel. The lord of Camois, immediately informed of the arrival of Gratien, comes to fight him under the walls of Montgriès and defeats him. The vanquished, forced to surrender, is handed over as a prisoner to Florée, who would gladly learn of Camel's death, because, despite the value of this knight, she feels no friendship for him (v. 6087).

After this new victory, Camel returns to Camois. He would be happy to go to the Tournament of the Guard and would like Hermondine to authorize it. He asks her in a letter that Florée is responsible for delivering to his address. Hermondine would be inclined to give the authorization requested by such a brave warrior, but Florée is of the opposite opinion. She thinks that her cousin must avoid anything that could bring the final success of Camel: despite his value, this knight is unworthy of the princess, because of the fits of sleepwalking to which he is prey and which she reveals to him. Hermondine declares herself convinced, and Florée then indicates to her the line of conduct that should be taken with regard to Camel: she will go to the tournament of the Guard with the hope of meeting there a knight capable of conquering. the lord of Camois. She then takes leave of the daughter of the King of Scots and, back in Montgriès, she notifies Camel the order to continue to guard his "border"; the latter submits to it. Florée then leaves for the Guard, in the company of Argente, her chambermaid, and takes on the road Argentina, the damsel of Carmelin (c. 6489).

Let’s come back to Méliador who goes to the tournament, burning to distinguish himself and thus attract the attention of the Princess of Scotland who occupies all his thoughts. Among the two hundred knights gathered for the games which take place in front of the castle of the Guard, Agamanor is obviously one of those who collect the most glory; but, in the opinion of all, it is the knight in the Golden Sun who wins the honor of the day and Florée the judge worthy of being opposed to Camel. The games over, Méliador retires to the lodge he occupied the day before and it is in his absence that he is awarded the prize of the tournament, a hawk. The feasts last for several days and nights, and it is only on the fourth day after the tournament that everyone thinks of going home (v. 7094).

Camel, informed of the return of the young lady from Montgriès, comes to hear from her the news of the tournament. Florée tells him of the prowess of the Chevalier au Soleil d'Or, the hero of the day, and, also praising the Red Knight, she arouses in the Lord of Camois the desire to measure himself with these valiant men: he therefore prays the young girl to warn him in case one or the other is seen in the country. During the month, Florée will spend a few days in Scotland with her cousin, to talk to her about the hope she puts in Méliador. At the same time, the knights of King Artus who had attended the tournament of the Guard return to Carlion and tell this monarch of the day, an account which is immediately recorded (c. 7240).

While Agamanor sets off again very worried, Méliador rides with a heart full of hope. The third day after his departure from the Guard, he jousts without result with Sorelais, a valiant knight. Sorelais runs the world on the orders of a lady, who, as a reward for the glory she would like to see him acquire, promised him his love. At Méliador's prayer, he sings a virelai which he composed in memory of his beloved, and the two knights then take leave of each other (v. 7566).

Now let's talk about Phénonée, Méliador's sister. His father saw, at the court of King Artus, the hawk that was awarded to the winner of the jousting of the Guard. She asks about it and thinks it may well be her brother. To attract her to Tarbonne, she begs Duke Patris to order a tournament similar to the one just mentioned. Patris agrees and sends heralds to all countries to announce the feast. The news reaches Méliador who promises to attend this new tournament (v. 7730).

The Chevalier au Soleil d'Or continues on his way and, one day he was sleeping in a grove, between Montgriès and Carmelin, a young lady passes by accompanied by a page: it was Florée whom Camel used to bring the knights back to him. wanderers that she could meet. After awakening Méliador by the song of a rondo, she tells him the story of Camel and the origin of the quest: he will have to either compete with the lord of Camois, or give up his weapons and engage never to think of the Princess of Scots again. Jealousy bites Méliador to the heart: he inquires whether this Camel, who seems to him a favored lover, has appeared at the Tournament of the Guard and says he is very happy to have to fight with such a famous warrior. He therefore accompanies to Montgriès Florée, who, at his age, finally recognizes him as the Knight of the Golden Sun. The fight will take place the next day; in the meantime, the young lady leads Méliador to the room where the arms of the knights defeated by Camel are deposited. He first examines the coats of arms of ten knight prisoners and recognizes the coats of arms of several that he would gladly deliver; he then considers the coats of arms of ten other knights who would rather die than surrender. He then felt a great admiration for the military valor of the Lord of Camois; but he nevertheless declares that his coat of arms will take the eleventh rank among those of the dead or that Camel will die at his hand (v. 8650).

Supper and, in the evening, Florée sends word to the Lord of Camois that the hero of the Guard tournament is in Montgriès, ready to fight him. Camel shows up the next day early in the morning, and is at first quite disdainful of Méliador. The two knights come to blows and both do great weaponry. Camel manages to injure his opponent in the shoulder and overwhelms him with taunts. Soon after, however, Méliador cuts off his arm with which he was holding the sword. The lord of Camois, who for a moment had the idea of fleeing, changed his mind and tried to strike Méliador in the heart using his targe; but the knight in the Golden Sun parries the blow and thrusts the sword down his throat. Camel is not the only one whose love caused death: the poet recalls the memory of some of the most famous among the victims of this sentiment. At the sight of Camel's corpse, Florée feels that from now on she can live in peace, and she has it transported to Camois. The first thought of Méliador, on returning to Montgriès, is to get out of prison the ten knights to whom their weapons and their horses are returned, and who receive from Florée the order to go and present themselves to King Artus. We then take care of the hero's wound, which will require at least a month to heal. While he is being treated at Montgriès, the ten knights he has delivered arrive at Carlion, where the account of the feats accomplished by the knight in the Golden Sun is recorded, and each of them sets out again in an attempt to new exploits (v. 9364).

While Méliador is held back by his wound at the castle of Montgriès, a remarkable adventure arrives four leagues from this place. While so many knights are thinking of distinguishing themselves by their feats of arms, two brothers, Savare and Feughin, have left the house which sheltered them both to try the chances of the quest, surrounding themselves, by mutual agreement, with all the necessary precautions to safeguard their incognito. One day they meet in Northumberland, at the edge of a moor and a wood; they joust together like the two brave knights they are, and Feughin seriously wounds Savare. He is desperate when he recognizes his brother in the adversary he has put in such a bad spot; but Savare reassured him and took full responsibility for this unfortunate engagement. The litter which had just brought Camel's body to Camois is used to transport the wounded man to Montgriès, where the local lady welcomes the two brothers very courteously. While Feughin lavishes his care in Savare there, Méliador recovers his health and takes leave of Florée, with the intention of embarking on new adventures (c. 9603).

Florée, seeing Méliador ready to leave, gives him a secret ring, inside which is an inscription which designates him in a sufficiently clear way and of which he is unaware of the existence: she prays the knight to the Golden Sun to wear it in remembrance of her until the day when he can use it with dignity, and the latter undertakes to do so. Méliador then left Montgriès. Florée, after having followed him with her eyes as far as she could, wrote to the Princess of Scotland to inform her of Camel's death and had the letter brought to her by a squire (c. 9770).

Méliador rides through Northumberland, thinking of Hermondine, and thus arrives as far as the Severn. Going up the course of this river which waters the whole kingdom of Norgalles, he soon meets a young lady who, with her retinue, had just got off a boat, and he inquires about the purpose of his trip. A rich heiress of the country, the young lady of Montrose, orphan with a brother too young still to be of great help to her, sent her to King Artus to implore the protection of this prince against four knights his neighbors, four brothers, who want to strip her of her land. Méliador offers its services ; we accept them. After sunset, he embarks with the messenger and arrives the next day in Montrose where everyone is delighted by his arrival. The enemies of the young lady are immediately notified of the arrival of a champion determined to fight them. The four brothers are called Madrigais, Balastre, Cobastre and Griffamont; the oldest is only twenty years old and all four aim to acquire the reputation of perfect knights (v. 10431).

Montrose Castle, which Julius Caesar had built on an arm of the Severn, has since changed its name to Chepstow. Méliador received there a welcome worthy of him, and soon the four knights come to challenge him and set the conditions for the fight. One of them will first place himself at the disposal of the champion of Florence, the lady of Montrose: if the latter defeats him, he will have to deal with another opponent the next day; the same on the third day if the fate remains favorable to him; finally, in the event of a new victory, he will have to measure himself on the fourth day with the one who has not yet fought. They thus regulate the order of battle, so as not to incur any reproach, and three of them withdrew (v. 10509).

Griffamont has persuaded his brothers to measure himself first with the Chevalier au Soleil d'Or, but he is soon forced to surrender, and Méliador takes him prisoner to the Château de Montrose. His three brothers consult each other for the next day's fight where Cobastre has the same fate as Griffamont. While Méliador is taking some rest after this second victory, an errant knight and his squire arrive at the castle of Montrose, who have been lost for four days in the Wales. Tangis, that was the name of the knight, is welcomed by the young lady and, on hearing the story that Florence gives him of Méliador's enterprise, recognizing in him the hero of the tournament of the Guard, he does not hesitate to declare that she couldn't find a better champion. Out of discretion, he does not accept the offer made to him to see the Chevalier au Soleil d'Or, but he expresses the desire to attend, however, at the end of the struggle. After having recommended him to her people, Florence takes leave of him and leaves him with her squire (10960).

Méliador, who woke up quite late in the afternoon, remembers a ballad he made in honor of his lady and, soon after, they come to fetch him for supper. The next morning, Balastre shows up to fight against him, and Tangis assists Florence in the fight that ends with a third victory for the Chevalier au Soleil d'Or. Madrigais, then considering the various aspects of the situation, stops at the idea of treating with the lady of Montrose for the deliverance of his brothers: he sends her for this purpose a knight accompanied by a herald. On the advice of Méliador, Florence consents to peace, provided that the four brothers will go to the court of King Artus to admit their wrongs and undertake by oath to serve their enemy of the day before on any occasion. Madrigais accepts the conditions made to him. Tangis takes leave of the lady from Montrose in the meantime and embarks on the Severn in a gondola which will take him to Bristol; there he will set sail in order to arrive in good time at the Tarbonne tournament (v. 11532).

Méliador also left Montrose by water with the intention of going to Tarbonne. On the first day, everything is going well and he goes to sea; but soon a storm arises which lasts throughout the night. The next day, at daybreak, he goes ashore with his companions in the Isle of Man where the King of the Hundred Knights will soon settle: the bad weather forces him to stay there for four whole days. On the fifth day, herring fishermen tell him that he is between Ireland and Scotland: he then inquires if there is any city nearby, large or small, and he learns that across the sea is Aberdeen, where the fishermen come from and where they will return to. next day. Méliador then decides to leave with the fishermen and lands in Aberdeen, desperate to give up the Tarbonne tournament (c. 11827).

Lansonnet, his squire, comforts him, by representing the happy luck which brings him to Scotland, less than a day from the castle of Montségur where Hermondine lives. He advises her to enter the princess in a borrowed suit, presenting himself as a jeweler, and Méliador agrees with this advice. Lansonnet then bought a quantity of jewels from the goldsmiths of Aberdeen; the knight joins the ring to it, a gift from Florée, which seems to him the prettiest of all and which he thinks to offer as an opening to the beautiful Hermondine. It is therefore in a merchant's black clothes, with black hands like those of a man of this state and stone shoes on his feet, that Méliador leaves Aberdeen to go to Montsegur in the company of his squire and a boy who serves as his guide (v. 12066).

The alleged jeweler arrives at Montségur where he lodges in a house not far from the castle, and, thanks to the good offices of Fromonde la Grise, he obtains to be introduced to the princess. He first offered her the ring he had from Florée as a stunt: he had a great need to sell, he said, and would give up his merchandise cheaply. Hermondine retains the whole assortment and distributes a part of it to her young ladies: during this time, Méliador contemplates at leisure the lady of his thoughts. After having dined in the company of Hermondine's maids, he receives the money owed to him for the jewels and leaves the castle with less pleasure than he entered, especially regretting that the princess is unaware of the dangers involved. he ran for the love of her. Accompanied by Lansonnet whom he joined on the road, he takes leave of Dame Fromonde before returning to Aberdeen. Then, still full of melancholy, he composed a ballad in which he said he was more unfortunate than Narcissus and, after a night spent in the Scottish town, he again went in search of adventure (c. 12616).

Learning from the sailors who accompanied Méliador to Scotland on their unfortunate journey, the lady of Montrose was greatly moved, because she foresees that her Savior will not be able to go to the Tarbonne tournament. At the time fixed, knights from all over the world came to lodge around Tarbonne, where King Artus, for his part, had sent several of his people to lend Duke Patris the support of their experience in the field of jousting. In the plain where the tournament was to take place, they had just built stands for the ladies and gentlemen. Among the two hundred valiant knights who take part in the feast, we see Gratien, Tangis, Dagoriset and above all Agamanor, the Red Knight, shining in the first row, the Red Knight, whom his skill soon points out to Phenoneus; but, sensed by her mother, the Duchess Aliénor, the young girl tries to take the edge off: to believe her, her eyes only seek to guess her brother, and, the exploits of the Red Knight helping, she comes from there. to think that this valiant and Méliador are one. The retreat sounded, the servants who came to meet their masters bury the dead and transport the wounded in litter, while supper and night feast are prepared at the castle, which the damsels attend in town costume. After supper, the tournament prize (a hawk) is awarded to the Red Knight and, as it is not known where to find the winner, it is agreed that the bird will be brought to the court of King Artus without delay (c. 13262) .

Agamanor, who remained at the party, takes pleasure in the sight of Phenoneus for whom he feels a deep love, but he retires at daybreak and confides his feelings to Bertoulet. The entertainment continued for three days and three nights, and when it was over Phenoneus believed herself so certain of the identity of her brother and the Red Knight that she adopted the latter's motto for herself, a white lady, proposing to have it carried to a knight, smashing it with a white hawk in allusion to the price of the tournament. Having obtained for this purpose the consent of her father, Duke Patris, she invests with her new motto a young knight, Lionnel, whom real qualities recommended to her choice and she sends him to run. the adventures in search of the Red Knight: if he manages to reach him and recognize him as Méliador, he will have to reveal to him the object of his mission. Lionnel does not take long to leave Tarbonne, heading for Northumberland. The second day of his quest, he meets the Dark Knight and, after having defeated him, he addresses it to Phénonée who alone can authorize him to take up arms again (v. 13602).

The day after his departure from Tarbonne, Agamanor wounds in single combat a knight called Corbillier. Two days later, he crosses paths with the Lady of Montrose who, leading the four brothers vanquished by Méliador to the court of Artus, tells him about this latest feat of the Chevalier au Soleil d'Or. After having, the same evening, conquered in a jousting Conse, another knight, he continues his journey towards Northumberland where more than one remarkable adventure awaits him; but it is not possible to mention them all (v. 13906).

Méliador also rode in Northumberland. Heartbroken at not having been able to go to Tarbonne, he sees from a distance a company of ladies and knights to whom he sends Lansonnet and thus learns from his squire that these are the people responsible for bringing to the court of Artus the price of the Tarbonne tournament. Continuing his journey, he jousts with Gerpin, a cousin of Florée, and this knight, seriously injured, shows him the path to take to meet Camel's cousins who hold the country in the hope of avenging the death of their relative. Gerpin then goes to the castle of Montgriès to receive the care of Florée; cured, he takes leave of this young lady at the same time as Feughin and Savare who separate again (v. 14217).

Florée leaves for Scotland to see the young princess, her cousin. Along the way, she has the opportunity to talk about Méliador with the maid of Montrose who was returning from Carlion. Arrived in Montségur, she announces the death of Camel to Hermondine who cannot defend himself from some pity for this valiant man whose death she involuntarily caused; but Florée quickly puts his conscience at rest. She then sees Meliador's ring on the princess's finger, a ring whose origin and secret she reveals to her. For three days, she never stopped praising the knight in the Golden Sun and recounting his feats, thus giving birth to Hermondine's desire to judge for herself the merit of this hero. The princess looking for an honest way to achieve this, Florée opens the opinion that she begs the king her father to want to grant her a tournament: the Lady of the Guard and the daughter of the Duke of Cornwall each had their own, Hermondine may well also have his. King Hermond does not resist such a good argument and he immediately sends heralds to proclaim the tournament which will take place, five weeks later, in front of Signandon, the tournament for which the price will be a white sword. Signandon (Snowdon), which we now call Estruvelin (Stirling), is a strong castle in Scotland and the most ordinary residence of King Hermond. There is a beautiful site there for the tournament which one prepares (v. 14777).

Méliador, who was traveling through Northumberland at the time, meets Lionnel, whom he throws off. Returned to the saddle by Lansonnet, the Chevalier de Phénonée describes the mission with which he is charged; the son of the Duke of Cornwall was careful not to make himself known to his sister's messenger, but showed him a great deal of courtesy. We separate and Lionnel soon finds himself face to face with Agamanor; the latter, seeing him wearing his own motto, orders him to explain his conduct. To the reasons given to him, the Red Knight can only answer one thing: if he actually won the prize in Tarbonne, he is not however the brother of Phénonée, to whom he would be happy to belong. It does him great honor, he adds, to "encargier" his motto and he gladly allows his knight to wear it. In the meantime, a Scottish herald arrives who invites both parties to the tournament to be held. fourteen days later, at Signandon, and they promise to go there (c. 15346).

But back to Méliador and what happened to him after he defeated Gerpin. In search of a new opponent, he finds Tangis le Norois, invites him to joust with him and puts him in bad shape. In the evening, he lodged with a widowed lady, and learning from her that a tournament was to take place at Signandon, he set about going there. Two days later, crossing paths with Sansorin, a quest knight, he would gladly avoid the fight so as not to miss the tournament, but Sansorin is Camel's parent and is keen to compete with his cousin's winner. It takes him badly, however, because, seriously injured in his turn, he is forced to seek treatment in a neighboring manor, while Méliador reaches Signandon in good time, where everything is prepared for the tournament (c. 15957).

More than a hundred quest knights are present at the opening of the festival and, among them, Méliador and Agamanor whom Florée first brings to Hermondine's attention. Both cover themselves there with glory; but, when they finally grapple with each other, the Duke of Cornwall's son upsets Agamanor. The value of it nonetheless made a strong impression on King Hermond. From now on, however, it is Méliador whom the heralds designate as having the honor of the day, and the Chevalier au Soleil d'Or is trying to justify their forecasts. Agamanor does not however give up all hope of triumph and his fine feats of arms earned him new applause. However, the fight ceases with daylight and everyone returns to their homes to prepare for the night party where Méliador is awarded the tournament prize (v. 16742).

The winner stands at one of the doors of the room where the result has just been proclaimed and, when Florée passes, he asks her in a low voice not to forget the knight who delivered her from Camel; but this call does not attract the attention of the young lady who, taking him for a valet, passes by answering him rather casually. Believing that he is despised, he is in despair. But his words return to Florée's mind, who pretends a sudden indisposition to take leave of Hermondine and leave the party: she hopes to have some news from Méliador in this way. Indeed, her merry-go-round did not escape the knight who joined her and made himself recognized. She then takes him to a room and, after having interested Hermondine's favorite chambermaid in the person of this valiant, she tells the Princess of Scotland that she suffers from a fever and asks her to come. She thus spares the two lovers an interview which ends only at daybreak (v. 17764).

While the princess tries to take some rest before reappearing at the party, Méliador returns to his home the day before to leave a few hours later, in search of new adventures. The next day, he meets the messengers that the lady of Valerne sent to the festivals of Signandon, to seek some support against the businesses of his neighbor, the Lord of Châtel-Orgueilleux, and he agrees to take his cause in hand. But let's go back for a moment to Tangis de Sormale, which an unfortunate injury retained for two months at Brun-Manoir, thus preventing him from participating in the Signandon tournament: barely back on the road, the public voice informed him of the knight's new success. at the Soleil d'Or. However, the latter arrives near Yvore, the lady of Valerne, and, measuring himself almost immediately with Messire Buin, he gives life to this valiant man on condition of faith and homage to that which until now he has never had. 'has stopped persecuting. The next morning, Méliador left Valerne and headed for Wales, thinking of the Princess of Scotland for whose sake he composed a rondelet (c. 18463).

Lionnel, the knight to whom Phénonée entrusted the search for Méliador, went to the tournament of Signandon, in order to tell his mistress the story of this day. He then returned to Tarbonne and gave him an account of his mission. The daughter of the Duke of Cornwall, brought to recognize that her heart had deceived her, begs Lionnel to keep this adventure secret, thanks him for the trouble he has taken and keeps him near her (c. 18734).

Méliador meets a squire leading his master in a litter, seriously injured by the Irish. This squire announces to him that, continuing on his way, he will soon reach the Passage de la Garde, on the Clarence River, by which one enters Ireland: the passage is defended by two formidable knights, Housagre and Panfri; but, adds the squire, it would be a very glorious exploit to defeat them and invade Ireland. Although he had often heard of Irish barbarism, the idea smiled on Méliador and, at all costs, he attempted the opening. Arrived at the Pas de la Garde and transported to the other bank by a boat, he finds himself face to face with the two announced adversaries who are waiting for him firmly. Panfri falls under his blows and Housagre, reduced to mercy and eager to avoid the fate of his brother, agrees to keep the passage and to come from now on to the aid of the knights who will present themselves there. However, Housagre warns his conqueror that the conquest of the Pas de la Garde is only the smallest part of the task undertaken by him: he will find many perilous adventures on the river itself, for not all the Irish warriors are defeated; the roads are guarded by many knights that he will have to fight if he gets to them. This prospect did not frighten Méliador: he headed for Brun Rocher, guarded by three knights who had already learned of the success he had just won. Two of them are badly treated by the Breton hero and he forces the third, Frotaud le Gris, to take guard of the passage without opposing any knight of Brittany. He then continues on his way on the Clarence River, which, at this point, is at least two leagues wide (c. 19207).

However, Phenoneus falls into a deep melancholy. The memory of the Red Knight, this knight in which she thought she recognized Méliador, does not leave her for a single instant, but she does not want to reveal the secret of her heart to anyone, and one soon notices an alteration in her health. The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall, seeking the cause of their daughter's illness, first turned to his companions, then to Lionnel: to the sentiment of the latter, who recounts the steps he took. delivered by order of his mistress, the evil has its source in the brotherly love of Phénonée for Méliador. Duke Patris then pretends to have received a message from his son who would be in Northumberland, and, with the consent of Phenoneus, he sends Lionnel to this country, enjoining him not to return without having heard from Méliador, to whom he on the other hand, orders to come and see his sister (c. 19433).

The measure taken by the Duke brings first of all some improvement in the condition of his daughter, but Phenoneus soon falls back into an even more unfortunate state than before. Patris then decides to give him a close relative, Lucienne, daughter of Count Lucien, for his companion, and, with a delicate touch, he installs the two cousins in a manor located not far from Tarbonne, in the very wood from which Méliador left for the quest. Lucienne does not take long to gain all the confidence of Phénonée and, teaching her the art of composing lovers roundels, she gradually draws it out of her melancholy (c. 19680).

One night, chance leads Lionnel to the home of a forester where Agamanor and Bertoulet were already sleeping. He shares Bertoulet's bed and hardly sleeps, nor his companion; so they talk, and Lionnel lets him know the purpose of his trip and everything that touches Phenonea. Bertoulet expresses regret at not being able to give him any useful information and is careful not to say who his master is. They separate and Agamanor hears with pleasure the story that Bertoulet gives him of his interview with Lionnel. He is sorry for the sorrows of her who has his heart, but he cannot rejoice at the feelings that Phénonée felt for the Red Knight, since Méliador is the real object, and he does not know what to resolve. Bertoulet then advised him to go see the daughter of Duke Patris and speak to her; but how to get into it? Fortunately, Agamanor possessed a certain talent as a painter, a talent much less rare among the knights than one might think: it is therefore as an artist that he will appear in Phénonée and, what is more, as the author of a painting representing the adventures of the Red Knight. Once his plan of operations had been drawn up, he headed for the Duke of Cornwall's residence, left his equipment in storage in a house located a day from Tarbonne and finally stayed in this town with a labor tribunal, near whom he takes on the quality of painter (v. 20228).

Agamanor then reproduces on a canvas various episodes of the tournament and the festivals of Tarbonne where the Red Knight holds the first place. When the painting is finished, he wraps it around a stick, goes to the home of Phenoneus, presents his work to the young girl, and the latter, after declaring itself the purchaser, leaves it to a chambermaid the care of. take care of the artist. The painter in love is very sorry to be so quickly separated from his lady: he dines however at the manor, but, when the next one presents him with forty marks in payment for the canvas, he obstinately refuses to take them and returns to Tarbonne, promising to return soon with some other work (v. 20564).

After Agamanor's departure, Phénonée and Lucienne shut themselves up in a room to examine the painter's work at leisure. Lucienne believes that this painting, which traces memories dear to her cousin, was executed on the order of the Red Knight, no doubt informed of the inclination of Phénonée and desirous of bringing a remedy to the evil from which she suffers; she also thinks that an investigation should be carried out. Valienne, the chambermaid, was summoned for this purpose: she was asked about the painter's attitude when he left, and, from her answer, Lucienne concludes that the artist is either a gentleman or a madman, and that he will have to be carefully studied during his next visit. In the meantime, Phenoneus sets great store by her canvas and, although she usually has no secrets from Lucienne, she does not, however, confide all her thoughts to her this time (v. 20689).

However, back at home, Agamanor laments: his madness has made him lose everything; he dishonored himself by denying chivalry and blames himself for having believed that a manual work could earn him the love of Phenoneus. He thinks of leaving Tarbonne the next morning, but the night changes his dispositions and he returns to the idea of presenting another painting to the lady of his thoughts: this time a small canvas offers the image of the Red Knight, a falcon. in the fist, in front of Phénonée, to whom he addresses a round amorous. Four days later, the artist returns to the Manoir du Bois, declaring that he will only show this new work to the daughter of the Duke of Cornwall. The latter, who took care to place Lucienne behind a curtain, receives the painter and, complimenting him on a painting which enchants him, she urges him with questions about the knight whose image he has reproduced and the achievements. Agamanor ends up confessing to him that the painter and his model are one and the same character; he declares his love for her and implores her to retain him for her knight (v. 21046).

Much moved by Agamanor's statements, Phenoneus pushes her away for a moment to take Lucienne's advice. The two cousins then make him appear before them, and Lucienne endeavors to show him the improbability of his words. The Red Knight then tells how, from an early age, he took care of painting, thanks to the proximity of the artists who decorated the paternal mansion; he also says the part he took in the quest instituted for the love of Hermondine. Arriving at the story of the Tarbonne festivals, he complacently expands on the role played there by the daughter of the Duke of Cornwall and, in testimony of her veracity, he repeats the two rondos which he has retained for having heard them sing by Phénonée. He also recalls his meeting with Lionnel and how the story he told Bertoulet determined him to come before the object of his love. The two cousins consult again, and Phénonée shows herself very ready to welcome Agamanor's request, but Lucienne does not yet understand it thus: she declares that the Red Knight will have to prove his valor by fighting against two tried knights. While waiting for the day fixed for the fight, Agamanor goes to join Bertoulet, while Phénonée is not satisfied to contemplate the two tables which he painted for her (v. 21831).

Lucienne immediately sends a messenger to the Cornish Islands, in order to summon Morphonet and Abiace, the two knights she wants to oppose Agamanor and who will have to surrender immediately to her call, to compete, she says, with a knight who spoke regrettable words. The combat takes place on the appointed day: Agamanor stands valiantly against these two united adversaries; he seriously wounds Abiace on the shoulder and, full of courtesy towards Morphonet whom he has disarmed, he allows him to pick up his sword. Phénonée and Lucienne then try to stop the fight, but Agamanor, seeing Morphonet ready to continue the fight, refuses to give up the ground before his adversary. Finally, after further passes of arms, he must yield to the authorities of the two ladies who award him the honor of the day. Abiace then receives the care of Lucienne, and one returns to the manor where Agamanor and Morphonet take place at the dinner in front of Phénonée and her cousin (v. 22425).

After dinner, Lucienne gives the Red Knight complete freedom to talk to Phénonée about her feelings. While acknowledging the merit of her worshiper, the daughter of the Duke of Cornwall replies that she cannot bestow her love on a knight whose origin and name she does not know: she does. therefore urge to name himself. Agamanor objects in vain to the incognito that the Knights of the Quest must keep. "I can see," said Phoenoneus to her, "that your words are lying. It is for another that you sigh; it is for the Princess of Scotland that you left your home and decorated your shield with a white lady; it is his love that made you triumph in front of Tarbonne! »Agamanor defends himself as best he can: if, while running the adventures, he first thought of Hermondine whom he knows only by reputation, Phénonée changed the course of his ideas, because the love which inspires the sight of a beautiful person is much stronger than the love resulting from great fame. Besides, the Princess of Scotland will marry the most valiant knight of the quest, and he could not claim the first rank. May Phenoneus be so good as to admit it for his knight, he will feel his courage doubled and equal to the greatest enterprises (v. 22649).

The conversation between the two lovers is interrupted at this moment by Lucienne, and Phénonée confines herself to detaining Agamanor until the following morning, in order to be able to give him a horse in exchange for the courier whom Abiace had wounded. Lucienne, informed by her cousin of the interview she has just had with Agamanor, dictates to her the answer that should be made to this hero. We have supper and we book then in the orchards to singing and dancing. Meanwhile, the daughter of the Duke of Cornwall informs the Red Knight of the decision she has taken: Hermondine being destined for the most valiant of the knights of the quest, Phénonée will have no other husband than "the second valiant of this same quest," but he wouldn't mind that this one was the Red Knight. Finally, after enjoying some rest, Agamanor leaves the manor, mounted on the horse given to him by Phenoneus (v. 23052).

But let's leave Agamanor there and come back to Méliador, or rather Hermondine and Florée. The two young girls not having yet written to Méliador as they had undertaken to do when he left Signandon, decide to send him their news through a squire named Flori. The latter therefore headed for Ireland and, thanks to the indications that Housagre gave him at the Pas de la Garde, he met the Chevalier au Soleil d'Or four leagues beyond Brun-Rocher, gave him the letter. he is a porter and accompanies him at the step of the Perrons, guarded by two brothers, Arselon and Albanor. Attacked by them, Méliador defends himself valiantly and kills Arselon. Albanor fled to escape death and this third passage is acquitted like the first two (v. 23562).

While Lansonnet is busy looking for peasants to bury Arselon, Méliador takes pleasure in talking to Flori about the Princess of Scotland and hearing from the mouth of this squire songs composed by Hermondine and that she likes to repeat. . They then set off again in the direction of Dublin. The next day the son of the Duke of Cornwall, taking on an Irish knight named Dagor, declares to his adversary that he has not yet met such a valiant warrior. Dagor teaches him that, in order to prevent his son from taking part in the quest for which Hermondine will be the prize, the King of Ireland has all the passages of his kingdom carefully guarded. Such a measure surprises Méliador a lot: he thinks that the King of Ireland must renounce it and let his son freely follow the inclination he may have for arms. He therefore asks Dagor to make this feeling known to his sovereign and at the same time to propose to him the proclamation of a tournament which would take place at his ordinary residence, a tournament in which the Knights of the Quest, despite their numerical inferiority, would endure the shock of all the Irish warriors assembled. Dagor would be happy if Méliador's offer were accepted; but he hesitates to take on such a mission, for fear that the king will accuse him of cowardice. After a short recovery, he decides however, to bring to his master the proposals of the Breton knight whom Flori consents not to leave before Dagor's return (c. 24449).

Questioned on his return to Dublin on the state of Ireland's defense, Dagor announces to King Sicamont the defeat of his bravest men and fulfills the message charged by Méliador. This news drew on him the anger of the Irish monarch who ordered him to run the next day to meet Méliador, and, under pain of his life, to bring him dead or alive. But Sagremor, far from sharing the feelings of the king his father, secretly enters Dagor's room in the evening, confides to him his strong desire to lead the life of a knight and stops his arrangements to go with him. The next morning, the hawk in hand, Sagremor goes to the nearby wood and, while the two squires accompanying him go in search of the bird that has flown away, he joins Dagor. Barely reunited, they meet a Breton warrior, Rolidanas, from whom Dagor inquires about the knight of the Golden Sun. It is from Rolidanas that the two squires of Sagremor learn the same day of their master's flight with Dagor: they then expatriate themselves to avoid the anger of the king who, not receiving any news from his son or from the servants in the evening. this one, makes seek it on all sides and dies of grief less than four months later (v. 24888).

Continuing his journey with Sagremor for long days, Dagor finally finds Méliador and tells him of the lack of success of the proposal he transmitted to the King of Ireland. As a testament to his veracity, he introduced him to the son of this monarch and Méliador, informed of the young prince's war vocation, entrusted Dagor with the task of leading him to the court of King Artus. To this end, he releases the Irish knight from the obligation to fight again against him, but nevertheless leaves him the freedom to act as he pleases in any encounters that may arise. They separate, and the son of the Duke of Cornwall then gives leave to the squire de Florée, by giving him to Hermondine's address a letter with a rondeau which the Princess of Scotland hastened to learn and then told her cousin (c. 25160).

At the same time, Dagor led Sagremor to the court of King Artus and along the way taught the young prince all the duties of a perfect gentleman. A short day away from Carlion, he meets a Northumbrian knight, accompanied by a beautiful and gracious lady, his friend, and who shows a desire to joust with him. Dagor consents to it; but Sagremor, fearing an accident which does not allow his companion to fulfill the mission for which he is responsible, advises the maid to intervene to stop the fight, after a pass of arms remained without result, and the two champions reach the desire for it. Finally, Dagor and Sagremor arrive at Carlion and obtain an audience from King Artus. The Irish knight tells the Breton monarch the story of his adventures and asks him to kindly welcome the young prince who comes to his court to learn the profession of arms. The king agrees with pleasure, presents Sagremor to Queen Juniper and, shortly after, he gives a military feast during which the heir to the throne of Ireland becomes a knight (c. 25812).

Sagremor enjoys the favor of Artus and spends his time cheerfully, sometimes with the king, sometimes with the queen. A very young damsel, Sébille, the heiress of Montmille in Northumberland, soon captivates the heart of the Prince of Ireland who one day ventures to tell him of his love and only succeeds in frightening and making more circumspect the naive child who hitherto frolic in all innocence with him. Struck by the change now presented in the mood of the new knight and unable to make him confess the cause, Dagor reproaches him for his inaction and urges him to pursue adventures. He then learns from Sagremor the cause of his concern. However, the young prince is more than ever filled with the thought of Sébille: he laments of the beauty's indifference, finds a little softening in her suffering by composing a romantic ballad and finally decides to leave the court. But first he wants to take leave of Sébille, of Sébille alone, and finding that she is timely, he announces his departure. If he leaves, it is because very different from what she used to be, she no longer feels anything but hatred for him. Sebille protests energetically, but in vain: it is true that she does not dream of love and that she relies on the care of fixing her destiny for the king and the queen. His apologies do not appease Sagremor: hated by the one he loves, he must flee from her. He nevertheless asks her to remember sometimes the young knight errant who sets out to run the world in search of glory, wearing in honor of her on his shield a lady dressed in blue. He further begs her to allow him to fuck her mouth. At this moment, Sébille casts on Sagremor a look of such sweetness that he will never lose the memory of it and the youngster manages to pluck the kiss so longed for, a kiss that comforts him for many years. Finally, and without adding a word, he leaves Sébille who runs away in shame. He then goes to put on his arms and secretly leaves Carlion, without taking any servants with him; then, across the plains of Northumberland, he heads towards Gaul (c. 26432).

Let us now return to the King of Ireland, whom the loss of his son caused to die of pain. The Irish, having decided to give themselves a new sovereign in order to obviate the evils which threatened invaded Ireland, first of all sent six knights to inquire about Dagor and Sagremor at the court of King Artus. It would have been a great joy for them to find the heir of the deceased monarch, but Artus can only inform the messengers of the departure of the young prince, soon followed by that of Dagor, eager to find his pupil. After a fortnight spent at Carlion awaiting some news, they returned to tell the Irish that their mission had not been successful. In the opinion of many, Sagremor died a victim of his temerity; but it is not appropriate to remain deprived of a king and one then offers supreme power to the most famous knight of Ireland, in Bondigal. The latter accepts it; he was crowned in Dublin and the new sovereign, of a very bellicose nature, had the Irish borders lined with warriors responsible for preventing access to the country to any knight coming from outside. Ireland is thus closed to Sagremor which has passed through Brittany; if he wants to regain possession of his inheritance, he will have to conquer it and he will doubtless not fail to do so (v. 26591).

As Méliador continued on his way to the land of Ireland, his attention was drawn to a riding lady accompanied by a dwarf, singing a rondo and just ahead of an Irish knight, Carentron, his friend. Despite the advice he receives from the beautiful traveler, Méliador stops to ask her a question and is soon challenged by Carentron, very moved to see his friend in the company of a stranger. Although theIrish was a very valiant warrior, he is nonetheless forced to surrender to mercy and promises his victor to go and tell his adventure to King Artus. As a result, he sets out for Wales, with the damsel, in the ordinary equipment of a defeated knight who has not yet fulfilled the order given him by his fortunate adversary, it ' that is, unarmed and the sword hanged backwards (v. 26910).

Let us now speak of the daughter of the Duke of Cornwall whom the state of health of the Count of the Islands, father of Lucienne, forces her to separate from her cousin and who, on her cousin's advice, is sent to Queen Genever where she will be able to attend the closing of the quest, because the five years that the competition is to last are soon coming to an end. Very well received by the King and Queen of Brittany who called her "beautiful cousin", Sebille was given to her as a companion and the two young girls took a great friendship for each other. One day, Phenoneus sees two great and strong knights arrive at the court of Artus, defeated by Agamanor who sent them there: this circumstance rekindles her love and she regrets not being able to talk to Lucienne about it; but shortly afterwards, to Sebille's account of the departure of Sagremor, she replied by what she knew of the Red Knight (v. 27245).

Let's go back to Sagremor. One day when the damsel was riding alone, his mind completely occupied with Sébille, he did not hear the greeting given to him by a young lady named Margadine. Very astonished and not knowing to what motive to attribute the silence of the knight, she sends her servant to ask him to come and speak to her. Learning that Sagremor is looking to compete with, she points out her own brother, a knight who fears no one and who recently fought the Red Knight; she then leads him to a place very close to where he can find this brother called Morenois. But the meeting does not turn to the advantage of this one: he is injured in the shoulder. The fight then ceases at the request of Margadine and Morenois is taken to his mansion to give him the care that his condition requires. During the night, Sagremor learns with pain that his adversary, previously defeated by the Red Knight, has failed in honor by not surrendering, in accordance with his commitment, to the court of Artus: he strongly reproaches Margadine for having put him in front of such a champion and, after having criticized Morenois himself, he orders the felon knight to surrender without delay to Carlion to confess his culpable behavior. Before leaving Morenois' home, he gave Margadine a letter for Sébille, then separated from the brother and sister who took the road to Carlion (c. 27918).

Morenois, led in litter to Carlion, is received as well as his sister at the court of the king. Artus welcomes his confession with kindness, and he is very happy to be able to give the queen news of Sagremor. The two travelers are detained at court and Margadine ranks among the demoiselles de Genièvre. Dagor, now with the king, is delighted to be able to talk about Sagremor with Morenois and, eager to come to the aid of the damsel's inexperience, leaves Carlion after having inquired about the path it takes to find him. Margadine, for her part, binds with Sébille and gives him the young man's letter. Sébille, who takes great pleasure in reading this letter, expresses to Morenois' sister the hope of having more news from her lover soon (v. 28276).

Soon after taking leave of Morenois, Sagremor finds himself in an enchanted forest, known as Archinai, which borders on the Humber. He rides there a whole day without eating or eating, for such is the virtue of the said forest that one does not feel hungry or thirsty. Sagremor attributes this wonderful circumstance to the power of his weapons and of the lady dressed in blue depicted on his shield; however, to strengthen his opinion more strongly, he strips off his armor, hangs his shield from a tree which seems surprisingly cold to him, leans his spear against the same tree and places his sword on another branch. While he is thus disarmed and his horse grazes quietly, a white deer suddenly leaps from the bush and, passing quickly in front of the damsel, frightens the horse which runs away. It is in vain that Sagremor sets out in pursuit of his mount, for the stag, by fleeing on its side, hinders the knight's course and by its presence accelerates the pace of the horse. When Sagremor finally stops exhausted, not knowing what to do, the deer also stops, and seems to invite the damsel to ride it. The young prince gets on this steed of a new kind, but it does not take long to lose the tracks of his horse and he is carried by the animal towards a lake where he has water up to his waist ... (v . 28468).

… Sagremor sees Sébille in a dream [singing a virelai], on which they then talk, the damsel protesting that he has never spoken of [the love he feels for her], except to a virgin very discreet (no doubt Margadine). He then begs her to make him hear a certain rondeau in love, dealing with the same object as the virelai. After she has complied and to obey Sébille's request, Sagremor in turn sings a virelai of her own composition which earns her pleasant compliments. But immediately the beauty disappears and the emotion that the young prince then feels is so strong that he wakes up suddenly. The sight of what surrounds him brings him back to reality and he finds himself regretting that the dream we have just told is only a delusion. Deprived of his weapons and his horse, not even having with him the stag that led him to these places, it would be impossible for him to repel any attack. While he indulges in these sad reflections, Sagremor sees before him three ladies of great distinction and perfect beauty. All three dressed in white and holding each other happily by the finger, they address the word kindly to the knight, asking him how he got into their orchard. Sagremor then tells point by point what happened to him and the three ladies then deliberate on the subject of the damoiseau which they have delighted and transported to their home. It is indeed important that we know that the ladies who kidnapped Sagremor are none other than nymphs, followers of Diane. It will be discussed further below, but the time has come to say the end of the quest, the main object of the present poem (v. 28831).

Towards the end of the fifth and final year of the quest, all the Knights who took part in it come from Ireland, Wales and Northumberland to Carlion, to appear before the twelve arbitrators chosen from the start. The judges, who engage in an impartial investigation, hold in great esteem Agamanor, Gratien, Dagoriset, Lucien, Feughin, Savare and a dozen other knights; but, while waiting for the final tournament, they still prefer the winner of Camel, whom the public voice already designates as the likely winner. The King of Brittany and that of Scotland then arrive, with all the knighthood of the two kingdoms, at the place prepared for the tournament where the most deserving knight of the quest must be proclaimed. On the Tweed and on the border between the two countries, a large and magnificent mansion had been built for Artus, first named Monchus and which, subsequently abandoned, was then called the Old Manor; raised later by a king of England, son of King Henry and Queen Aliénor, who had been born there, he received from this prince the name of Roxburgh which he still bears today. The King of Scotland settled on the same river and five leagues higher. The house he lived in with his daughter still remains: it was then called Blanche-Lande, but today it is the abbey of Melrose that black monks occupy. Among the guests of Artus and Genièvre are the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall, their niece Lucienne, and the three damsels of the Guard, Montrose and Carmelin. Hermondine, for her part, is accompanied by more than one hundred and twenty ladies and young ladies, among whom Florée, her favorite friend (v. 29103).

Artus sends for the King and Princess of Scots who go to Monchus with their retinue. Hermondine receives congratulations from Queen Genever on the subject of the collection ordered in her honor and, to inaugurate the feasts, she gives a supper followed by caroles and songs. Most of the next day is devoted to the tournament which features 1,566 knights. By shining in the forefront of the combatants, Méliador and Agamanor justify the hopes that Hermondine and Phénonée have placed, each on their own, in one of them; but the Knight of the Golden Sun unquestionably wins over the Red Knight and, in a prolonged engagement between these two warriors, Agamanor would have been thrown off by his adversary if their fight had not been interrupted by the eruption of a great number of other knights. The hour of retirement having finally sounded, all those to whom the day has not been fatal return to their lodgings (v. 29593).

The two kings and their retinue of return to Monchus, the prize of the tournament is awarded to the knight of the Golden Sun and we inquire about his home. The King of Brittany goes to look for him there in the company of King Hermont and all the knights, and we recognize in the triumphant the son of the Duke of Cornwall, Méliador, who is brought with great pomp to the royal residence. . Hermondine accepts as her husband the valiant man who, for her love, has suffered so much fatigue for five years. Like the day before, we end the day with a general supper, dances and songs; after which everyone goes to rest, with the exception, however, of the Duke Patris, the Duchess his wife and their children who, very happy to be reunited, spend the night chatting (v. 30045).

The day after the tournament, Méliador becomes the proud husband of the Princess of Scotland and, two days later, Agamanor's marriage is celebrated with the daughter of the Duke of Cornwall. One day later, we marry three other of the most valiant knights of the quest: Gratien, the knight from beyond the mountains, marries Florence the damsel of Montrose, Dagoris and the damsel of Carmelin and Tangis the Norois the heiress of the Guard. . These three marriages accomplished, the two courts are transported to the manor of King Hermont, at Blanche-Lande, where the celebrations start all over again. The union of Florée, Montgriès' heiress with a relative of King Artus, Agravain, who later distinguished himself under the name of Chevalier au Blanc Écu, and that of Lucienne, the cousin of Phenoneus, with Tristan the Savage. Two days later, King Artus announces a new tournament, for the following summer, in Camalot, the capital of the kingdom of Logres: four prizes will be awarded to the winner of four knights, three prizes to the one who defeats three, And so on. Finally, we part ways, with the intention of seeing each other again on the date indicated (v. 30763).

The main manuscript of the novel ends today when the author will appoint Duke Wenceslas of Luxembourg, at whose request he had written this work. We therefore have to deplore the loss of the end of the adventures of Sagremor, of which Froissart had undertaken to resume the story after the conclusion of the quest. To all appearances, the young knight was the hero of the Camalot tournament and, finally united with Sébille, ascended to the throne of Ireland. It is certainly to this part of the poem that the fourth of the fragments of the manuscript relates. TO which we believe should give a quick analysis:

Pesagus, whose friend was kidnapped by two knights who also took away his weapons, tells Sagremor of the misadventure of which he is the victim. The young Irish knight offers his help to Pesagus who, having accepted it, sounds the horn to challenge the kidnappers, Sagremor meets them, kills one and leaves the other in bad shape. Pesagus thus recovers his friend and this one, grateful, offers to his savior the hospitality in his house of the High Manor.