One of the earliest Caucasian Neolithic settlements was found in eastern Dagestan. It is dated to around 8,000 years old. The cultural continuity between the Mesolithic and the Neolithic of the region suggests that the latter spread essentially without population replacement. Thereafter, the region sees the arrival of populations of Indo-Iranian languages at the beginning of the second millennium BC. JC, the movements of the groups turkish Bulgarians and Khazars around the middle of the first millennium AD. JC, and finally the arrival of the Turkish kipchaks at the end of the first millennium AD. JC.
The mountainous terrain making travel and communications difficult, Dagestan is of an unusual ethnic diversity, and still largely tribal: Aghul, Avar, Darguin, Lak, Lezguien, Routoul, Tabassaran, Tsakhur, Nogai, Luck.