The Triads of Ireland

The collection of the Triads of Ireland, translated by Kuno Meyer, has come down to us through the following nine manuscripts, ranging from the fourteenth to the nineteenth century:
- the Yellow Book of Lecan, a complete copy.
- the Book of Ballymote, which ends imperfectly.
- the Book of Hui Maine, a complete copy.
- the Book of Lecan, a complete copy.
- 23. N. 10, a complete copy.
– H. 1. 15, a complete copy, with numerous glosses in Irish Modern.

The Triads of Ireland

The Triads of Ireland

These manuscripts have, on the whole, identical text, although they all occasionally omit one or two triads; and that the order of the triads varies among all. They have all been used to construct a critical text. The order followed is generally that of the Yellow Book of Lecan.

There are at least three other manuscripts containing copies of the Triads. One was discovered by Kuno Meyer in the Stowe collection after printing the text. It is a manuscript on paper numbered 23. N. 2.

Another copy, written in 1836 by Peter O'Longan, originally in the possession of the Earls of Crawford, now belongs to the Kylands Library, Manchester, where it was discovered by Professor Strachan. It is a very corrupted copy.

Finally, there is a vellum copy in the Advocates' Library called Kilbride III.

In all of these manuscripts the Triads follow, precede, or are incorporated into the collections of proverbial maxims and discourses known as the Tecosca Cormaic, Auraicept Morainn, and Senhriathra Fithil, the whole forming a body of gnomic literature from ancient Ireland which deserves to be edited in its entirety. It is clear, however, that the Triads did not originally belong to this body of texts. They have a different origin, and form a collection by themselves. This fact is further demonstrated by their absence in the Book of Leinster, the oldest manuscript containing the Tecosca Cormaic (pp. 343a - 345b), the Senbriathra Fithail (pp. 345b - 346a), and the Briathra moraind.

Trecheng breth Feni inso sis

1. The Head of Ireland: Armagh.

2. The Dignity of Ireland: Clonmacnois.

3. The Wealth of Ireland: Clonard.

4. The Heart of Ireland: Kildare.

5. The Primacy of Ireland: Bangor.

6. The Comfort of Ireland: Lusk.

7. Entertainment of Ireland: Kells.

8. The Two Eyes of Ireland: Tallaght and Finglas.

9. The Sanctuary of Ireland: The House of Cairnech on the Asal Road.

10. The Purity of Ireland: Scattery Island.

11. The Abbey Church of Ireland: Glendalough.

12. Irish Case Law: Cloyne.

13. The House of Pledges of Ireland: Ferns.

14. The Prayer of Ireland: Lismore.

15. Knowledge of Ireland: Emly.

16. The Legal Word of Ireland: Cork.

17. Knowledge of Ireland: Roscarbery.

18. The Wrongdoing of Ireland: Terryglas.

19. The Spiritual Guide to Ireland: Clonfert.

20. The Curse of Ireland: Lorrha.

21. Judgment of Ireland: Slane.

22. The Rigor of Piety of Ireland: Fore.

23. The Enchantment of Ireland: Ardbracken.

24. The Simplicity of Ireland: Roscommon.

25. Ireland's Welcome: Raphoe or Drumlane.

26. Charity of Ireland: Downpatrick.

27. *** from Ireland: Dairchaill.

28. The Stability of Ireland: Moville.

29. The Martyrdom of Ireland: Dulane.

30. The Repentance of Ireland: Cell Ruaid (The Church of Ruad).

31. The Chastity of Ireland: Lynally.

32. The three places in Ireland to disembark: Derry, Taghmon, Kilmainham

33. The three rental locations in Ireland: Clonard, Glendalough, Louth.

34. The three stone constructions of Ireland: Armagh, Clonmacnois, Kildare.

35. The three fairs in Ireland: Teltown Fair, Croghan Fair, Colman Elo Fair.

36. The three forts of Ireland: Dunseverick, Dun Cermna, Cathir Conree.

37. The three mountains of Ireland: Slieve Gua, Slieve Mis, Slieve Cualann.

38. The three heights of Ireland: Croagh Patrick, Ae Chualann, Benn Boirche.

39. The three lakes of Ireland: Lough Neagh, Lough Ree, Lough Erne.

40. The three rivers of Ireland: the Shannon, the Boyne, the Bann.

41. The three plains of Ireland: the plain of Meath, Moylinny, Moy-Liffey.

42. The Three Dark Places in Ireland: Knowth Cave, Slaney Cave, Ferns Cave.

43. The three deserted places of Ireland: Fid Mór (Great Wood) in Coolney, Fid Deicsen (Spywood) in Tuirtri, Moher Wood in Connaught.

44. The three unfortunate places in Ireland: Bangor Abbey, Lynally Abbey, Mugdorn Maigen Kingdom.

45. The three bad people of Ireland: the Crecraige, the Glasraige, the Benntraige.

46. The three cozy places of Ireland: Lusk Abbey, the Kingdom of the Three Cualu, the Deputy Abbey of Armagh.

47. The three strikes in Ireland: the Ross Airgit strike, the Ross Teiti strike, the Baile strike.

48. The three fords of Ireland: Ath Cliath (Gué des Claies), Athlone (Gué de Luan), Ath Caille (Gué du Bois).

49. The three great routes of Ireland: Slige Dala, Slige A sail, Slige Luachra.

50. The three passes of Ireland: Baltinglass, Limerick Pass, Dublin Pass.

51. The three ridges of Ireland: Druim Fingin, Druim nDrobeoil, Druim Leithe.

52. The three plains of Ireland: Moy Bray, Moy Croghan, Moy Liffey.

53. The three prairies of Ireland: Clonmacnois, Clones, Clonard.

54. The three households of Ireland: the household of Tara, the household of Cashel, the household of Croghan

55. The three waterfalls of Ireland: Assaroe, Eas Danainne, Eas Maige.

56. The three fields (?) Of Ireland: the land of Rathlynan, Slieve Comman, Slieve Manchain.

57. The three wells of Ireland: Well of Desi, Well of Uarbel, Well of Uaran Garaid.

58. The three rugged places of Ireland: Breffny, the Burren, Beare.

59. The three estuaries of Ireland: Inver na mBarc, Inver Feile, Inver Tuaige.

60. The three notable places of Ireland: Cuchulainn's Leap, Dunquinn, Sruve Brain.

61. The three familiar places of Ireland: Tralee, Logher, the Fews.

62. Three wonders concerning the Táin Bó Cúailgne: that the cuilmen replace it in Ireland ; the dead telling it to the living, namely Fergus mac Róig reciting it to Ninníne the poet in the time of Cormac mac Fáeláin; one year of protection to him to whom it is recited.

63. The three sacred places of the men of Ireland: the chest, the cheek, the knee.

64. Three unfortunate things for a man: to have too little water to drink, to be thirsty in a tavern, to have a narrow seat in a field.

65. Three unfortunate things for agriculture: a dirty field, the remains of a hedge, a house full of sparks.

66. Three things forbidden for a church: a nun as a bell ringer, an elder in the abbey, a drop on the altar.

67. Three celebrations followed by sorrow: that of a suitor, that of a thief, that of a storyteller.

68. Three sorrows better than joy: the weight of a flock feeding on a beech, the weight of a ripe field, the weight of a wood under acorns.

69. Three rejoicings worse than sorrow: the joy of a man who has swindled another, the joy of a man who has perjured himself, the joy of a man who has committed parricide.

70. The three worst receptions: a craftsman in the same house as his occupants, boiling water on his feet, salted food without drink.

71. Three unfortunate things for the son of a peasant: to marry in the house of a freedman, to become attached to a king, to associate with thieves.

72. Three unfortunate things for an owner: to ask a bad wife to marry, to serve a bad chief, to exchange his land for a bad one.

73. Three excellent things for an owner: to ask a good wife in marriage, to serve a good chief, to exchange his land for a good one.

74. Three auspicious days for a man without land: visiting a blacksmith's house, visiting a carpenter's house, buying without obligation.

75. The three fine things which best support the world: the fine stream of milk which goes from the udder of the cow to the bucket; the fine sprout of green grain in the field, the fine thread in the hand of a skillful woman.

76. Three hands which are the best in the world: the hand of a good carpenter, the hand of a skillful woman, the hand of a good blacksmith.

77. Three things that justice requires: judgment, measure, conscience.

78. Three things that judgment requires: wisdom, insight, knowledge.

79. Three characteristics of concupiscence: sighs, playfulness, visits.

80. Three things for which we love an enemy: wealth, beauty, value.

81. Three things for which we hate a friend: intrusion, keeping a secret, irresponsibility.

82. Three discourteous people in the world: a young man making fun of an old man, a healthy person making fun of an invalid, a wise man making fun of a fool.

83. Three vain things in the world: to warn a cursed man, to mock a beggar, to keep a woman light from lust.

84. Three beautiful things hiding ugliness: good manners in the ugly man, talent in the slave, wisdom in the counterfeit.

85. Three ugly things hiding beauty: a cow with a soft bellowing without milk, a beautiful horse without rapidity, a beautiful person without consistency.

86. Three sparks which stir up love: a face, the bearing, the words.

87. Three sureties with usufruct: wife's surety, a horse, salt.

88. Three prides in an assembly: a beautiful woman, a good horse, a fast dog

89. Three successes from Ireland: a spiritual stanza, a tune on a harp, shaving a face.

90. Three discourteous things: interrupting stories, playing pranks, bantering until you blush.

91. Three smiles that are worse than crying: the smile of snow when it melts, the smile of your wife after being with another man, the grin of a dog ready to jump on you.

92. Three deaths that are better than life: the death of a salmon, the death of a fat pig, the death of a thief.

93. Three handfuls that are better than plenty: a handful of witticisms, a handful of cows in the grass, a handful of friends over beer.

94. Three unfortunate people in a tavern: the man who offers the feast, the man to whom it is offered, the man who drinks without being satisfied.

95. Three subjects of mockery in the world: an angry man, a jealous man, a miser.

96. Three ruins in a clan: a lying leader, a bad judge, a lustful priest.

97. Three preparations in a good man's house: beer, a bath, a big fire.

98. Three preparations in the house of an evil man: quarreling in front of you, complaining to you, his dog which grabs you.

99. Three cries in the house of a good warrior: the cry of distribution, the cry to sit down, the cry to get up.

100. Three darknesses that women should not go into: the darkness of fog, the darkness of night, the darkness of a wood.

101. Three pillars of stubbornness: self-commitment, assertion, argument.

102. Three characteristics of stubbornness: visiting at length, staring, constantly questioning.

103. Three signs of a dandy: the mark of his comb in his hair, the mark of his teeth in his food, the mark of his staff behind him.

104. Three discourteous boasting: I'm on your trail, I trampled on you, I made you piss on you in my disguise.

105. Three living people who put away dead things: a deer losing its antlers, an antler losing its leaves, cows losing their coats.

106. Three places in Ireland to go: Tulach na n-Escop, Achad Deo, Duma mBuirig.

107. Three wonders of Ireland: the tomb of the dwarf, the tomb of Trawohelly, a close echo.

108. Three Oratories in Ireland: Birr Oratory, Clonenagh Oratory, Leighlin Oratory.

109. Three young girls who stir up hatred for misfortune: chatter, laziness, hypocrisy.

110. Three young girls who train love for good fortune: silence, diligence, sincerity.

111. Three silences better than speech: silence during teaching, silence during music, silence during sermon.

112. Three words better than silence: incite a king to battle, spread knowledge (?), Praise after reward.

113. Three impossible demands: Go! when you can't go, bring what you haven't got, do what you can't do.

114. Three idiots who are in a bad guesthouse: the chronic cough of an old witch, the brainless shrew of a girl, the leprechaun of a servant.

115. The three main sins: greed, gluttony, lust.

116. Three things that make a buffoon: inflate his cheeks, inflate his sac, inflate his belly.

117. Three things that make a comb maker: chasing a dog arguing for a bone; straighten the horn of a ram by its breath, without fire; sing over a pile of manure until all the antlers and bones and horns that are underneath come to the top.

118. Three things that make a carpenter: join without calculating (?) And without warping; skill with the compass; a well measured trait.

119. Three things that make a doctor: a complete cure, leaving no imperfection, an examination without pain.

120. Three things that make a blacksmith: Nethin's spit, Morrigan's grill, Dagda's anvil.

121. Three things that make a craftsman: braiding chains, a mosaic ball, a sharp edge on a blade.

122. Three things that make a harpist: a tune to make you cry, a tune to make you laugh, a tune to make you sleep.

123. Three things that make a poet: "knowledge that illuminates", teinm laeda, improvisation.

124. Two sinister cries of bad luck: bragging about your first massacre, and your wife gone with another man.

125. Three things foreshadowing difficulties: to hold a plow land in community, to accomplish feats with several, alliance in marriage.

126. Three drops of a married woman: a drop of blood, a drop of a tear, a drop of sweat.

127. Three cauldrons which are in each fortress: the racing cauldron (?), The cauldron goriath, the hosts' cauldron.

128. Three signs of a blessed place: a bell, a psalm song, a synod (of elders).

129. Three signs of a cursed place: elderberry, corncrake, nettles.

130. Three nurses of the brigandage: a wood, a coat, the night.

131. Three characteristics that announce good fortune: self-confidence, ***, will.

132. Three characteristics which announce bad fortune: lassitude, old age (premature), lamentation.

133. Two sisters: weariness and distress.

134. Two brothers: prosperity and agriculture.

135. Three unlucky ***: guarantee, mediation, testimony. The witness has to swear for his testimony, the surety has to pay for his safety, the mediator takes a hit on the head.

136. Three false sisters: “maybe”, “possibly”, “I dare say”.

137. Three fearful brothers: “hush! ", " hold on! ", " listen! ".

138. Three dead things which testify to living things: a scale, a bushel, a measuring stick.

139. Three guaranteed soups ***.

140. Three bad peasant works: to cover with thatch with stolen things, to put a fence with prohibition to pass, to use a dryer during the heat wave.

141. Three people followed by sadness: a suitor, a thief, a gossip.

142. Three sons whose madness leads to anger: frown, ***, mockery (?).

143. Three sons whose generosity leads to patience: ***, blushing, shame.

144. Three sons whose coarseness leads to impatience: trembling, avarice, vociferation.

145. Three cold things boiling: a well, the sea, new beer.

146. Three sounds of profit: the roar of a cow during milking, the din of a forge, the hiss of a plow.

147. Three riches in arid places: a well in a mountain, the fire of a stone, the wealth possessed by a hard man.

148. Three innovators of the world: a woman's belly, a cow's udder, a blacksmith's oven.

149. Three hidden things that seizure cannot remove: a woman's dowry, food for a married couple, maintenance costs for a boy.

150. Three contracts which are annulled by the decision of a judge: the contracts of a wife, a son, a farmer.

151. Three persons incapable of concluding a contract on their own: a son whose father is alive, a betrothed woman, the serf of a nobleman.

152. Three sons who do not share the inheritance: a son begotten in the undergrowth, the son of a slave, the son of a girl still wearing braids.

153. Three causes which do not die from negligence: the causes of a fool, and of oppression, and of ignorance.

154. Three bloodshed that does not lead to action: the bloodshed in battle, through jealousy, mediation.

155. Three cohabitations which do not pay a marriage dowry: taking her by force, insulting her without knowing it when she is drunk, her rape by a king.

156. Three things that do not allow exceptions: returning a son, the tools of a craftsman, the status of hostage.

157. Three deposits which must not be returned: the deposits of a fool, and of a high dignitary, and a fixed deposit.

158. Three dead who are paid with the living: an apple tree, an elbow tree, a sacred grove.

159. Three people who never swear and to whom we do not take an oath: a woman, a son who does not support his father, a mute.

160. Three people who cannot renounce authority: a son and his father, a wife and her husband, a serf and her lord.

161. Three people who do not judge, although they have wisdom: a man who sues, a man who is sued, a corrupt man to pass judgment.

162. Three things which are not thanked in their time: death, ignorance, neglect.

163. Three usucaptions1 who cannot collect a fine: fear, warning, theft.

164. Three incomes shared by workers: the income from a cauldron, the income from a mill, the income from a house.

165. Three oaths which do not require to be kept: the oath of a woman in the pain of childbirth, the oath of a dead man, the oath of a man without land.

166. Three ranks which ruin a clan by their lie: the lie of a king, of a historian, of a judge.

167. Three free people who make themselves slaves: a lord who sells his land, a queen who goes rough, a son of a poet who abandons the art (of his father).

168. Three beasts whose offenses count as human crimes: a chained dog, a ferocious ram, a biting horse.

169. Three bestial things that redeem crimes: a dog on a leash, a thorn in a wood, a slat ***.

170. Three things that ***: salted meat, butter, iron ***.

171. Three signs that *** in the house of a judge: wisdom, information, intelligence.

172. Three things which should be proclaimed: the meat fork of a cauldron, a knife without rivets, a mace without ***

173. Three doors of lies: an angry plea, an unstable knowledge base, giving information without holding it back.

174. Three doors through which the truth appears: a patient response, a firm plea, calling witnesses.

175. Three glories of an assembly: a judge without disturbance, a decision without insults, (to agree on) dispositions without fraud.

176. Three waves without wisdom: a harsh plea, a judgment without knowledge, a chattering assembly.

177. Three glories of the word: fidelity, wisdom, brevity

178. Three adornments of wisdom: abundance of knowledge, many precedents, recourse to a good lawyer.

179. Three hateful things in speech: coldness, obscurity, poor speech.

180. Three constant signs of good femininity: keeping your tongue, keeping your chastity, keeping your household.

181. Three mistakes of bad femininity: letting go of her tongue, and ***, and letting her household go to waste.

182. Three sartorial perfections: elegance, comfort, durability.

183. Three people who cannot be cured: a man who runs away from his boss, a man who runs away from his family, a man who runs away from a poet.

184. Three sauces that spoil a sick bed: ***, honey, salty food.

185. Three women who cannot collect a fine: a woman who does not look at who she sleeps with, a thief, a witch.

186. Three things that ruin a leader: lies, ambition, parricide.

187. Three things which characterize a chaste person: constancy, modesty, sobriety.

188. Three things by which we recognize an angry person: excess of anger, tremors, increased pallor.

189. Three things that characterize a patient person: calm, silence, that they become blushing.

190. Three things which characterize a haughty person: swelling, elegance, (display of) wealth.

191. Three things that designate a humble person: poverty, lack of elegance, obsequiousness.

19.2 Three signs of wisdom: patience, good relationships, the gift of prophecy.

193. Three signs of madness: discord, quarrels, affection (for everyone).

194. Three things which make a fool wise: education, constancy, docility.

195. Three things which drive a wise man mad: quarrels, anger, drunkenness.

196. Three things which designate a good man: a particular talent, bravery, piety.

197. Three things that designate a bad man: bitterness, hatred, cowardice.

198. Three things which push orphans to vagrancy: persecution, abandonment, poverty.

199. Three chains by which the propensity to evil is limited: an alliance, the (monastic) rule, the law.

200. Three rocks to which lawful behavior is required: a monastery, a chieftain, the family.

201. Three candles that illuminate the darkness: truth, nature, knowledge.

202. Three things that establish a king: a treaty with (other) kings, the feast of Tara, abundance during his reign.

203. Three locks that hide secrets: shame, silence, privacy.

204. Three keys which unlock thoughts: drunkenness, frankness, love.

205. Three inheritances which are distributed in the presence of the heirs: the inheritance of a buffoon, a madman, and an old man.

206. Three sisters of youth: desire, beauty, generosity.

207. Three old sisters: the moans, chastity, ugliness.

208. Three well-born sisters: constancy, good speaking, benevolence.

209. Three ill-bred sisters: violence, lust, stubbornness.

210. Three sisters of good fortune: good education, generosity, joy.

211. Three sisters of good reputation: care, prudence, kindness.

212. Three sisters of bad reputation: laziness, jealousy, avarice.

213. Three angry sisters: blasphemy, quarrels, rudeness.

214. Three irreverent sisters: indiscretion, frivolity, inconstancy.

215. Three reverent sisters: helpfulness, empathy, firmness.

216. Three days for women: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday. If women approach men on these days, men will love them more than they love men, and women will outlive men.

217. Three days for men: Thursday, Friday, Sunday. If women approach men on these days, they will not be loved, and their husbands will outlive them. Saturday, on the other hand, is a common day. It is also beneficial to them. Monday is a free day to start any business.

218. Three obligations of the surety: stay (at home), honesty, suffer (?); stay in his residence, honesty lest he lie, suffer (?) payment, namely (?) (?). let someone strip someone for an illegal action instead of the debtor.

219. Three soups from the deposit: wer-geld or a debtor *** or non-possession (?).

220. Three things difficult for the guarantee, and through which one can become a hostage and for which a contract is difficult: to go to safety for the construction of a king's fortress, an oratory, and a cauldron . Because it is difficult for a man from a family to be given with (?) His friends.

221. Three things which are unworthy of everyone: to ride a horse on a road in front of his lord, so that his robe is soiled, to go and talk to him without being called, to stare at him while he is eating.

222. Three legal hand widths: one palm between the shoes and the breeches, one palm between the ear and the hair, one palm between the fringe of the tunic and the knee.

223. What is the worst in a household? The sons of a matchmaker, frequent feasts, many wedding rings, plenty of mead and wine. They ruin you and bring no profit.

224. Three diseases which are better than health: the delivery of a male child by a woman, the fever of an abdominal disease which empties the entrails, a feverish passion to verify the evil by its good (?).

225. Three good receptions from a tavern: abundance and benevolence and art.

226. Three worst services a man can have: serve a bad woman, a bad lord, and a bad blacksmith.

227. Three things that are best in a house: oxen, men, axes.

228. Three worst things in a house: boys, women, lewdness.

229. Three signs of rudeness: conflicts, and arguments, and mistaking one person for another (?)

230. Different kinds of mercenaries: ***.

231. Different kinds of providers: ***.

232. Three that are most difficult to talk to: a king about his loot, a Viking in his hauberk, a boor who is under someone's patronage.

233. Three people whose spirits are the highest: a young cleric, after having read his psalms, a young man who put on the clothes of a man made, a young girl who was made woman.

234. Four on which there is neither constraint nor rule: the servant of a priest, the dog of a miller, the son of a widow, and the calf of a cow without milk.

235. Three difficult things: to be a guarantor in the name of a king or of a highly privileged person, for the honor of a king is greater than any claim, to be a guarantor in battle, for no one can be a guarantor in a battle except a king under whose yoke are seven tribes, to be guarantor for the captivity, except one who has a serf.

Seven prohibitions: to be a surety for an outlaw, for a buffoon and for a madman, for a person without ties, for a person without filial piety, for a fool, for an excommunicated. Any guarantee is difficult, moreover, because the guarantor must quickly give an account of the promises he makes, either in advance or after the fact.

236. Three Wonders of Glenn Dalian in Tirowen: The Boar of Druim Leithe. He was born there, and Finn was unable to act against him, until he was killed in Mag Li by a peasant who was using a dryer. This is why Finn said

"Badly, we fed our pack,
Badly, we pushed our horses,
Since a little boor in a dryer
Killed Druim Leithe's boar. "

The Beast of Lettir Dalian. It has a human head and otherwise the shape of a forge bellows. The water horse that lived in the lake near the church lived with the priest's daughter and fathered the beast with her.

The Beef of Dil is the third wonder. Her father came out of the same lake, and went to one of the cows of the owner who lived by the church, and he fathered the ox with her.

237. Three wonders of Connaught: the tomb of Eothaile on its shore. It is as high as the strike. When the sea rises, it is as high as the tide.

The stone of Dagda. Same jetty into the sea, even placed in a locked house, *** out of the well where it is.

The two herons of Scattery Island. They do not leave any other heron with them on the island, and the female heron goes west to the ocean to brood and comes back there with her young. And the coracles have not discovered the breeding ground.

238. Three worst smiles: the smile of a wave, the smile of a shameless woman, the grin of a dog ready to pounce.

239. What are the three riches of the wealthy? It's not hard to tell. A ready vehicle (?), Beer, without a home (?), An escort on the road.

240. Three sons that chastity gives to wisdom: courage, generosity, laughter (filial piety?).

241. Three leaders of an assembly: a jester, a juggler, a small dog.

242. Three things which are best for a leader: justice, peace, an army.

243. Three things that are the worst for a leader: laziness, betrayal, a bad adviser.

244. The four deaths of judgment: to give it in a lie, to give it without forfeiture, to give it without precedent, to give it without knowledge.

245. Three things that ruin wisdom: ignorance, inexact knowledge, forgetting.

246. Three nurses of dignity: good looks, good memory, piety.

247. Three nurses of good humor: pride, courting, drunkenness.

248. Four hatreds of a leader: a foolish fool, a useless servile man, a dishonorable liar, a talker who has no story to tell. Because a chief gives the floor to only four people: a poet for satire and praise, a chronicler with good memory for narration and tale, a judge for giving judgments, a historian for the ancient tradition.

249. Three dark things in the world: to warn, to guarantee, to raise a foster child.

250. Three prohibitions on food: eating it without giving thanks, eating it before its time, eating it after a guest.

251. Four elements of wisdom: patience, calm, sobriety, good speaking; for every patient person is wise, and every calm person is a sage, every sober person is generous, every person who speaks well is accommodating.

252. Four elements of madness: stupidity, prejudice, arguments, chatter.

253. Three shortcomings of a leader: a tavern without a story, a troop without a herald, a large troop without (Irish) greyhounds.

254. Three indications of a person's dignity: good looks, free conduct, eloquence.

255. Three chests, the depth of which is not known: the chest of a chief, of the Church, of an honored poet.

256. Three debts which should not be neglected: land debts, payment for a field, teaching poetry (?).